Organic Italian-Style Pizza Flour

Flour-based dishes are such a big part of Italian cuisine that a wide variety of Italian flour shouldn’t come as a surprise. Multiple types of grains are used to grind various kinds of flours, and they all have their use.

In our Italian section, you’ll find abundant options of high-quality Italian flour whenever you wish to try your hand at baking authentic pizza, hand-rolling fresh pasta, or simply upgrading the baking you already do with a higher-quality product.

But before you go looking, let’s break down all the aspects requiring attention to choose the suitable flour that fits your intended purpose.

There are several ways to categorize classic wheat Italian flour: the type of grain, the gluten protein content (i.e., “flour strength”), and how finely it has been ground. Let’s break down how each of these categories works.

is the easiest. Your flour package simply mentions if your flour is rice, barley, buckwheat, etc., unless it’s wheat.

Usually, Italian wheat flour is split into two large groups:  (soft wheat flour) and  (hard wheat or semolina flour). All Italian wheat flour fits into these categories one way or another, but this classification doesn’t apply to other grains

The second big category is . In Europe, most flour manufacturers denote gluten protein content on the packaging, and Italian flour is no different. “Strength” is crucial when it comes to baking. The stronger the flour, the higher the gluten content. The higher the gluten content, the more water it absorbs and the more gluten proteins bind.

Flour strength is marked with W-value

Gluten content is just as crucial as grind when selecting the suitable flour. If you want the dough to stay flat and retain moisture, you’ll need  flour. It would mean gluten content of about 8-9% with a W-value between 90-180

flour gluten content would correspond with a gluten content of around 9-12% (with a W-value over 200 and up to 300

flour would have a protein content of over 12% and a W-value over 300. There is even super glutinous flour15-16% gluten content and a W-value over 350

Last but not least, Italian flour is categorized by how finely it has been ground. That is the most common denominator for wheat flour, with type 00 flour becoming so famous that even newbie bakers are looking for it “because it’s the best.”

And don’t get us wrong, if you’ve not yet tried baking with type 00 Italian flour, you should remedy that at the earliest opportunity. But all types of Italian flour have their time and place, not just type 00. Don’t overlook them just because you’ve not heard of them as much.

Categorizing Soft Wheat Italian Flour via Grind

Soft wheat, or , Italian flour is generally split into 4 or 5 categories. The finer the grain is ground, the lower the number, with 00 the lowest and 2 the highest. Gluten content generally corresponds with it (finer the grind, lower the gluten level), but it’s not very straightforward (ex. Type 2 flour W-value can range between 180-350), so you should check for it when choosing the flour.

Type 00 Flour (sometimes called Doppio Zero)

Type 00 flour is the quintessential Italian flour synonymous with quality. It’s extra refined, very soft, and stark white in color because it contains none of the wheat bran. Despite its popularity, type 00 flour isn’t fit for all baking.

Due to the uber-fine grind, its gluten protein consistency is very low, at about 8-9% (and a W-value of 180 at most). It’s ideal for delicate pastries like croissants and cakes, certain types of flatbreads, or fresh egg pasta, but not so great a choice for bread, pizza crust, or hard pasta. At least not on its own.

Matching it to the American flour classification, we’d be closest to pastry or cake flour

If you’ve never worked with type 00 flour before, try starting with Antimo Caputo 00 flour, as it’s considered one of the most trustworthy brands on the market, with consistent quality.

Type 0 Flour

Type 0 Italian flour often gets overlooked due to the popularity of type 00, but it’s actually the more versatile of the two. Slightly less refined with a bit more wheat bran, type 0 flour is still very pale and virtually white to the human eye.

Its slightly stronger grind ensures its higher gluten content, at about 10-12%. Type 0 is the ultimate “medium-strength” flour, with W-value consistently between 180-240. It’s fit for most baked goods, from cakes to most types of bread, though the results can be mixed in the hands of an untrained baker.

In the American flour classification system, type 0 Italian flour would correspond the closest to

Despite type 00 popularity, high-quality type 0 flour is by no means a niche product, with most flour manufacturers

Type 1 Flour

Type 1 flour is possibly the hardest to describe. It’s not a fine grind anymore, but neither is it so close to whole wheat to be described as “coarse.”

It contains more bran than type 0 flour but is still white. Its gluten content is generally similar to type 0, hovering between 10-12% (and a W-value of 180-240).

With these many similarities between the two types, the main differences are the grind’s coarseness and taste. The higher amount of wheat bran adds a nuttier flavor to the flour. Combined with a  but not outright  grind, this makes type 1 flour a good fit for certain types of bread, muffins, pound cakes, etc.

It’s hard to fit it into American-style flour classification. Still, the closest it would come to would be , even though it’s at the lower end of the required gluten content (American bread flour typically has a gluten content of 12-14%).

Type 2 Flour

Coarser than type 1 flour, type 2 is the easiest to describe as semi-whole wheat flour. It’s the first grind on the list we’d describe as outright coarse. It has higher wheat bran content but is not so high to significantly darken the flour color. Because type 2 Italian flour is still white (though dark enough that it becomes visible to the human eye), it’s sometimes called white whole-wheat flour.

Type 2 flour is the one you should pay particular attention to gluten content with. It can be as low as 9% and as high as 13%, with the W-value ranging from “weak” at about 180 to “super strong,” reaching 350.

Like type 1, type 2 Italian flour doesn’t have an exact match in American flour classification, but bread flour comes the closest again. Type 2 flour is best used for savory dishes, like bread, pizza crust, or rustic pasta.

Tipo Integrale Flour

in Italian means “complete,” so fittingly, Integrale also means “” when used to describe flour.

It has a coarse grind and darker color due to wholly retained wheat bran, with a complicated, nutty aroma and a more distinct flavor. Integrale flour is the least versatile among Grano Tenero flours since its strong flavor makes for particular products. It’s barely if ever used for pastries, and even with bread, pasta, or pizza crust, many tend to prefer more finely refined flours.

As Its gluten content range is nigh identical to type 2 flour (around 10-13%, and W-value between 180 and 350), type 2 can often act as a fit substitute for recipes that call for Integrale flour if the flavor is not up to your taste.

Categorizing Italian Semolina Flour via Grind

There’s a prevalent misconception that semolina flour isn’t made of wheat but a completely different grain. Nope. Semolina flour is still wheat, just a different kind.

Durum wheat, used for grinding semolina flour, is a different species, but it’s still wheat. The main difference between the two is that while durum wheat contains a lot of protein, it cannot develop gluten as elastic as soft wheat. The resulting semolina flour is thus high in gluten protein – but not particularly fit for baking due to problems with gluten expansion.

This has earned it the name “macaroni wheat” since semolina flour is perfect for pasta-making.

Semola Di Grano Duro Rimacinata

Italian semolina flour types differ by how finely they’ve been ground, like soft wheat flour. Semola (the Italian word for semolina) rimacinata is basically the semolina flour equivalent of type 00 flour. It’s the finest grind and palest color, though it has the beautiful yellow hue of durum wheat due to high carotenoid pigment concentration.

To achieve the fine grind, semola rimacinata is typically milled twice. Curiously enough, despite semolina flour being deemed “pasta flour,” semola rimacinata is rarely used in pasta-making and primarily acts as bread flour.

Or the grind that’s “responsible” for categorizing semolina flour as pasta flour. Semola di Grano Duro can be both medium grind and coarse grind, and it’s the flour most often used to make , i.e., the dry pasta primarily used for cooking all over the world.

Interestingly, coarsely ground semolina flour is considered the best fit for most pasta shapes. At the same time, medium-grind is typically only used for regional pasta varieties like gnocchi alla Romana and Apulian orecchiette.

Semola di Grano Duro has a deeper yellow color than semola rimacinata, though their gluten protein content generally seems to be around 13%, with slight variation.

Semola Tipo Integrale

Unsurprisingly, Integrale once again denotes “whole,” though interestingly enough, it doesn’t necessarily mean coarsely ground flour. In fact, while semola integrale isn’t as popular a product as standard semola rimacinata, finding semola rimacinata integrale is easier than semola integrale.

Semola integrale simply means that natural durum wheat germ has been preserved during milling. This gives the final product a deeper color and a more distinct flavor, but the grind is similar to standard semolina flour.

It is typically used in bread-baking more often than pasta-making, though it can be used to experiment with homemade pasta.

Italian Manitoba Flour

Manitoba flour deserves its own space on this list because it is a different type of wheat used to make Italian flour. Manitoba is too a type of soft wheat with very high protein content. It’s not uncommon to find Manitoba wheat was used to make super glutinous flour, with its gluten content often reaching 15%.

Manitoba wheat is usually ground into either type 00 or type 0 flour and used for baked goods that require a slow-rising process. For type 00, this would be Italian Panettone and Colomba cakes, German krapfens, or French croissants. For type 0, this would mean pizza dough or certain bread varieties.

Sometimes Manitoba flour is milled and labeled for specific purposes.

Which flour is the best for pizza?

The real question is, what kind of dough are you looking to make? Because there’s really no such thing as ideal pizza flour. Only pizza flour that suits your purposes.

With their raised edges and chewy texture, Neapolitan-style pizzas would need strong white flour with gluten content on the higher side. Classic type 0, type 1, and type 2 soft wheat flours with a gluten content of around 12% would all serve the purpose.

But neither is considered to be the ideal flour for Neapolitan-style pizza. That would be high-gluten 00 flour, like Antimo Caputo 00 flour we mentioned earlier (its gluten content is around 14,5%).

On the other hand, if you’re looking to make thin-crust pizza, you’d need lower gluten content to prevent it from absorbing too much moisture and puffing up. Classic low-gluten 00 flour would work best. If you have trouble finding 00 flour with around 8% gluten content, you can try lower-end type 0 or type 1, with a gluten content of about 10%.

And there’s another question of how long you intend to let your pizza dough rise. The higher the protein content, the longer the dough will need to rise (for example, the aforementioned Antimo Caputo 00 flour would need to be proofed for around 48-72 hours to develop fully).

Which flour is best for pasta?

You’d think the answer would be straightforward Semola Di Grano Duro. . But the honest answer is that there’s no such thing as the best pasta flour. There are so many varieties that the best pasta flour choice heavily depends on what type of pasta is it exactly you’re planning to make.

Since you aren’t likely to dry your pasta, wheat flour would fit your purposes just as well as semolina flour. In fact, type 00 flour with its fine grind would do best if you want to try your hand at making fresh egg pasta.

When choosing pasta flour, there’s one rule: it needs to provide elastic, plastic dough. Elasticity for the dough to stretch and plasticity so that the dough can be shaped. This means higher gluten and protein content (one of the reasons why semolina flour, with its 13%, is a popular choice).

As long as you get the gluten content right, you can make good pasta with most grinds. However, the grind you choose will affect both the taste and texture of your pasta. Coarser grind means coarser texture, and more wheat bran means a nuttier, more potent flavor.

Sometimes flour packages are labeled as . It usually means that the flour has the suitable gluten and protein content to make the elastic and plastic dough pasta requires. These are safe choices if you have trouble deciding for yourself.

By Lucy Yanckello, Ph.D.

What are popular German breads?

In Germany, bread plays an important role in all three meals throughout the day. Whole grain, nutrient dense breads are the most popular German breads. A few German breads that fit the highly nutritious and satiating profile but do not skimp on flavor include Vollkornbrot and Pumpernickel.

Vollkornbrot is made from whole grains, such as rye, spelt, or barley, and seeds, such as sunflower, flax, or pumpkin. In Germany, Vollkornbrot bread must be over 90% whole grain, which increases the amount of fiber in the bread. Higher fiber intake has a multitude of health benefits, including reducing risk for cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and obesity. Those without the time to make this German whole grain bread at home are in luck. The leading brand in Germany, Mestemacher, is widely available in U.S. grocery stores. Mestemacher brand Vollkornbrot is baked in a special way to preserve freshness without preservatives, stabilizers, or additives. Additionally, those with gluten intolerance can enjoy this brand as most Mestemacher varieties are wheat free.

Pumpernickel bread is a popular German bread made from rye grain and a rye sourdough starter that has a variety of health benefits. Pumpernickel bread helps reduce blood sugar levels due to the high fiber and low carbohydrate content of the rye flour used to make pumpernickel. Additionally, pumpernickel is a great substitute for white bread for those trying to lose weight – pumpernickel contains only 12.4 grams of carbohydrates per slice compared to 15.5 grams per slice of white bread. Similar to Vollkornbrot, pumpernickel is high in fiber and will keep you feeling fuller for longer periods of time. Interestingly, opting to leave the crust on your pumpernickel sandwich may be the healthiest option – a German study found that the use of a sourdough starter that contains rye flour, just like the one used in pumpernickel bread, produces antioxidants in the crust during the bread baking process!

What are popular Italian breads?

Bread is a staple in Italian diets. It is a rarity in Italian culture to have a meal without an accompanying piece of bread. Italian bread differs from German bread because Italian bread has a much more open structure and is made from predominantly white flour. The prevalence of white flour in Italian breads dates back to Roman times when white flour was reserved for wealthier citizens and dark grains were given to those considered to be low-income. Unlike most countries that classify their flour based on gluten content, Italy classifies its flour based on grain size after it is ground. Two of the most popular Italian breads are ciabatta and focaccia.

Ciabatta bread was developed as a response to the French baguette, which was gaining popularity in Italy. Ciabatta has a similarly crunchy exterior to a baguette, but with a more open structured interior because ciabatta dough has a higher water content than baguette dough. Focaccia is another popular Italian open structured bread. Focaccia is a flat pan-shaped dough that was a precursor to pizza.

Ciabatta and focaccia are made with “strong flour,” or flour ground from hard wheat kernels. This “strong flour” has a high protein content that creates an open structure when baked, for which both ciabatta and focaccia are known. The high protein content also means that ciabatta and focaccia have a high content of gluten, which is the protein in flour. As a result, ciabatta and focaccia breads should be avoided for people with gluten intolerances and allergies. Ciabatta and focaccia also include olive oil in their recipes. Olive oil has known benefits such as reducing inflammation and protection against heart disease due to its high concentration of good fats (e.g. monounsaturated fatty acids) and antioxidants.

Many breads made in Italy are regional and in the US are only available at specialty bakeries or delis. Ciabatta and focaccia, though, have become so popular that most grocery stores in the US stock them regularly on their shelves. At Wildgrain, we make artisan ciabatta delivered directly to your door.

What are popular French breads?

Bread plays an important role in the history of France. Prior to the French Revolution, wheat flours were preserved for the rich and bran flours were given to those considered low-income. To this day, bread is so popular in France that French President Emmanual Macron requested the French baguette be recognized as one of the world’s cultural treasures on UNESCO’s list of “intangible heritage.” The baguette is the quintessential example of French bread, known for its light airy structure and distinctive crunch. In fact, by law in France, baguettes may contain only wheat flour, yeast, water, and salt, and they may not contain preservatives or additives.

Another popular bread in France is pain de campagne, a sourdough bread. Sourdough bread has health benefits not afforded by traditional yeast bread due to the longer fermentation process. This allows for higher nutrient and vitamin content. Pain de campagne (sourdough bread) is also low in gluten content, so it may be a good option for those with gluten sensitivities.

What are popular British breads?

Bread was so important in England during the medieval times that it informed the words lord and lady (from the Anglo-Saxon “loaf-guardian,” or) and lady (“loaf-maker,” or ). In England in 1956, laws were introduced stating that all flour, other than whole grain, had to be fortified with minimum amounts of calcium, iron, vitamin B1, and nicotinic acid. The US has similar regulations, but Britain has more limitations on additives in bread than in the US.

Popular breads in Britain include muffins in the US) and crumpets. Muffins and crumpets are both soft breads with open structures, perfect for a tea time snack or breakfast.

In the UK, muffins and crumpets are typically made with bread flour, referred to as “strong flour” in the UK. Bread flour has a high protein and gluten content, allowing for a soft, chewy texture that is essential for crumpets and muffins. The higher protein content of bread flour that is used in muffins and crumpets is also an easy way to sneak some extra protein into your diet. Compared to all purpose flour, bread flour has around 3 more grams of protein per cup. However, due to the high gluten content in bread flour, it should be avoided by those who have a gluten sensitivity.

What are popular American breads?

Store bought, sliced white bread is similar in its association with the US as apple pie. In the US, Wonderbread was the first nationally distributed, sliced bread. Prior to this, bread was made at home, often in unsanitary conditions, so this “processed” and “factory made” white sliced bread was highly sought after. It wasn’t until World War II that white bread started to be made with enriched flour to prevent wartime malnutrition. American white bread is fluffy and sweet, without the nutritional benefits of many of the European breads discussed previously.

How is American bread different vs European bread? Is American bread sweeter than European bread?

The biggest difference between American breads versus European breads is the quality of the ingredients used in each bread. Standard, store-bought American bread contains many preservatives and fillers that are banned in European countries. Unfortunately, the preservatives and fillers found in American breads have been found to be detrimental to human health, which is why we do not use these ingredients at

Another unnecessary ingredient found in bread in America, but not in European bread, is sugar. Sugar is often added to packaged bread in the US to preserve freshness, create a soft texture, and add sweetness. As a result, American bread is sweeter than European bread.

Looking for Italian breads, German breads, French breads, or British breads in the US?

In Europe, it is still common to buy bread at a traditional, artisanal local bakery rather than in a supermarket. Unfortunately finding high quality, healthy bread in the US is difficult. Local bakeries are often expensive, and in most grocery stores, there often are not options for breads from Italy, Germany, France, or Britain like the ones discussed above.

About the Author

Lucy Yanckello received her Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. She currently works as a medical writer and enjoys being able to help people better understand nutrition and science.

This content is for informational use only and does not replace professional nutrition and/or medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is not a substitute for and should not be relied upon for specific nutrition and/or medical recommendations. Please talk with your doctor about any questions or concerns.

Getting things right in the kitchen starts with your ingredients, and even that can be incredibly intimidating. Just look at how many different types of flour are on the grocery store shelves! Not only do you have to choose between things like white, wheat, and rye, but then there’s bread flour, and what is this 00 flour? Why do some recipes specifically call for it? Is it absolutely necessary? What if you can’t find it at your favorite grocery store?

Let’s clear up some of the questions about this very specific type of flour, figure out when you should use it, when you should definitely not use it, and whether or not it’s worth keeping this flour in your pantry.

So, what makes flour 00?

Right, so let’s start with the basics: what is it, and what’s it good for?

00 flour is the gold standard for Italian cooking, especially thin-crust pizzas and homemade pasta. It all has to do with texture. According to Serious Eats, the 00 designation is a reference to how finely the flour is milled, and this is the finest stuff you can get. Imagine taking a handful of your standard flour (pictured, on the left), and putting it alongside a pile of baby powder. You can tell the difference, right? 00 flour (pictured, on the right) is ground to about the same fineness as that baby powder.

If you’re thinking that’s kind of strange, you’re right — it’s a European thing. The Kitchn notes that while American flours are classified by protein content (and, in turn, gluten content), European flours are classified by the fineness of the grind. Assuming 00 refers to protein content is a mistake. Different types of 00 flour can vary in protein, but most 00 flour that finds it to American shelves has a protein content similar to what you can expect to work with in all-purpose flour.

Caputo is the gold standard, and yes, of course there’s different kinds

If you want to experience authentic pizza, there’s no doubts about where you should look. Italy has, for generations, taken serious pride in their cuisine, and it shows. The best pizza starts with the best flour, and that’s Caputo. Around 80 percent of pizzerias in Naples use Caputo flour, and really? What more do you need to know?

Caputo has a few different types of flour, and here’s where we have to add a bit of a disclaimer: some argue that it’s not entirely clear what the difference between all the bags is. Those over at the Brick Oven Baker say differences are subtle, and the manufacturer is tight-lipped when it comes to sharing just what’s in the bags. But according to Vorrei, there’s some general guidelines.

First, they say there’s the Blue 00 flour. That’s the roughest of their 00 line, and if you’re looking to make a pizza that’s got a crust that’s thin-ish in the middle and thick around the edges, this is your flour. It’s a good sort of all-purpose pizza flour, so you can’t go wrong.

The Red 00 flour is what you’re going to want to reach for if you’re opting for thinner crust pizzas, though. It’s really that easy!

Looking to make a special, authentic Italian dinner for someone? Start with the Caputo in the brown bag, which is perfect for making things like gnocchi and ravioli.

It’s all about the gluten content with 00 flour

Right, so you know that 00 is great for pizza dough, but why?

It’s all about the gluten formation, because it’s gluten that determines how chewy your crust is going to be. We’ve all been there: you’re looking forward to pizza night all day, only to find you’re completely incapable of chewing your way through the crust without dislocating your jaw. Ugh.

Caputo 00 flour is a little lower, coming in at around 12 percent gluten. That’s pretty much perfect and will give you a chewy crust without crossing the line and getting rubbery. Plus, the dough will form those oh-so-delicious puffs and bubbles as it bakes. Win!

You’ll have to adjust the water content with 00 flour

If you’re going to try to use your favorite pizza dough recipe but swap in 00 flour, doing a straightforward substitution is going to cause some problems.

Pizza & Other Bread says that no matter what flour you’re using, hydration level is important. If you use too little water, you’ll end up with a dry, dense crust. Too much water, and you’re going to have a sticky dough that’s impossible to work with, and won’t hold its shape. Most standard recipes take this into account, but if your favorite calls for, say, bread flour and you decide to swap in 00, you’re going to have to make some adjustments.

Hydration level is measured by ratios, so say you have 100 grams of flour, and add 65 grams of water. That’s going to give you a 65 percent hydration level, and that’s pretty standard for pizza dough. But, Serious Eats says that since 00 flour is so fine, your standard amount of water is going to make your dough way too runny to work with. Your best bet is to find a recipe that specifically calls for 00 flour, and if you want to use it as a substitution, it’s going to take a lot of trial and error — and slowly adding water — in order to get your proportions right.

You’re going to need a super-hot oven for pizza dough made with 00 flour

There are lots of ways to mess up pizza and getting your pizza crust to come out right is surprisingly complicated. It’s entirely possible that based on the equipment you have at your disposal, you might want to forget about using 00 flour at all.

Why? Because even though it might be the only authentic choice for a true, Neapolitan-style pizza, there’s a massive catch. In order to get it really, really right, you’re going to need a super-hot oven.

Jeff Varasano of Varasano’s Pizzeria says (via PMQ) that in his experience, 00 flour works best in an oven that’s cooking very fast and very hot: like, 800 degrees Fahrenheit and above sort of hot. At cooler temperatures, you’re not going to get that distinctive browning you want, and the texture might just end up a little “eh.” If he’s cooking his pizzas at even 720 degrees, he opts for a flour blend that’s mostly bread flour.

But, here’s an important note if you’re fortunate enough to have, say, your own wood-fired pizza oven and you can get those kinds of temperatures. Since other types of flour have higher sugar content, they’re going to burn at those extreme temps. Now with 00 flour, on the other hand, it has a low sugar content and is going to cook pretty much perfectly.

Why is bread flour just ok when 00 is amazing for thin-crust pizza and pasta?

So, here’s the thing — you can definitely use bread flour for making pizza dough and homemade pasta. According to Bon Appetit, bread flour is preferable to all-purpose, because you’re going to get that chewy texture you want in pizza crust. You’re also going to get something that keeps its structure — again, something you want when you’re loading your pizza up with toppings galore.

Now, what about 00 flour? Because it’s ground so finely, that’s going to allow you to roll your dough out thinner than you would be able to manage with bread flour (or all-purpose). Ever try to make a thin-crust pizza and have your dough tear instead of stretch? That won’t happen with the fine-ground 00 flour, and it’s the same principle at work with homemade pasta. The fineness of the flour translates to, well, think of it as a more elegant, delicate dough.

What happens if you use 00 in other applications?

Bon Appetit confirms, saying that the grind of 00 flour is way too thin for baking a loaf of bread. Factor in the idea that it’s not going to be compatible with things like the ratio of water your recipe calls for, and well, bottom line? Bread flour works for pizza but 00 doesn’t work for bread, and your best bet is just to read your recipe, and use the type of flour it calls for. It really does matter!

Semolina bread is an Italian bread made with durum wheat flour.Also called semolina flour. It is widely used in Southern Italy for bread baking. For this reason you’ll find many different types of Semolina bread.

Some of the most popular ones are Pane Di Altamura (Altamura bread) originated in humongous town in Puglia and Sicilian Semolina bread.

While there are more types of Sicilian bread made with semolina flour than you can imagine, there’s one type of Sicilian bread that is the most famous.

Slightly nutty sweet taste and coarse texture paired with delicious sesame crust makes this Semolina Bread is truly unique and irresistible.

It’s made with 100% semolina flour, water, yeast and salt.

Few people know that this type of bread was originated in small town of Monreale close to Palermo. In Sicilian dialect it’s called u pani ri Murriali.

It can be made in 3 shapes:

  • smaller round loaves (1.1 pounds / 1 kg)
  • elongated loaves of different size that somewhat resemble a baguette.

In home environment the latest are the easiest to make. You’ll also love how versatile and excellent they’re in storage.

Semolina Bread Ingredients

  • Semolina flour – durum wheat semolina preferably coarsely grind. Having said that you can also use fine ground semolina (semola rimacinata). What matters the most is that semolina flour has high protein content. Check the packaging Nutrition Label and make sure protein number is at least 4 g per 30 grams serving size or 12 grams per 100 gram serving size. The protein content is the key that will determine the success of the recipe.
  • Water – bottled water, room temperature
  • Yeast – active dry yeast
  • Salt
  • Sesame seeds
  • Large bowl
  • Stand mixer or hand-held mixer with a dough hook
  • Baking Sheet
  • Clear plastic poly bag – optional but highly recommended
  • Scissors

How To Make Semolina Bread – Step By Step With Pictures

Prepare no-yeast starter using water and flour. This process is called autolyse.

  • Mix a little over a cup of water with semolina (reserve the remaining water for later).
  • Knead until there’s no dry flour left.
  • Cover with a plastic wrap and let rest for 1 hour.

Prepare the dough

  • Add to semolina mix the remaining water and yeast. Knead briefly then add salt.
  • Knead for 4 minutes using a mixer with a dough hook or for 10 minutes by hand.

  • Place the dough in a bowl and using a sharp knife cut a cross.
  • Cover with a plastic wrap and let rise until almost triple in size. It should take anywhere between 2.5 and 4 hours depending on the ambient temperature.

In my experience with the indicated quantity of yeast the dough will rise:

  • In 2-2.5 hours at 80F or 26C.
  • In 4 hours at 72F or 22C.

You can make the dough rise faster by adding an extra pinch of yeast or placing it in a warmer place (like lukewarm oven (80F or 26C). My oven will only preheat to minimum of  86F (30C) so I will preheat it to that and then leave for a few minutes to cool down a little bit.

Once the dough has risen divide it into a few pieces. Depending on the loaf size you want to make you can divide it into 9 ounces (250 g)  or 4.5-5 ounces loaves (125-150g).

  • Take each piece of the dough and flatten it out with the tips of your fingers or using a rolling pin.
  • Roll into a 2 inch thick roll. It should be no less than 2 inches or 5 cm in diameter. Thinner rolls will dry out in the oven too much!
  • Pinch the seal and place on a lightly floured surface seal down. Repeat the process with the remaining dough.

  • Using a spray bottle lightly spray each dough roll with water than dip wet side down in sesame seeds.
  • Arrange the bread rolls on the baking sheet well distanced apart.
  • Using scissors make a few cuts on each side of the loaf. As an alternative you can score your loaves with a knife.

  • Cover with clear plastic poly bag, tuck it under the baking sheet letting some air in so that the bag won’t touch the dough.
  • Alternatively you can place a couple of glasses on the baking sheet between the bread loaves and cover everything with a plastic wrap. Glasses will prevent the plastic stick to the dough.
  • Let rise for 30-60 minutes. Again depending on the room temperature.

Bake in a preheated to 465 F (240C) oven for 10 minutes. Then lower to  390F (200C) and bake for another 15-20 minutes until golden brown.

Storage Suggestions

Semolina bread will keep for a few days stored in your bread bag. However if you want to truly taste freshly baked bread at every meal it’s best to freeze as soon as it has cooled to room temperature.

Reheating Instructions

These loaves thaw really fast. Simply take them out of the freezer an hour before the mealtime and keep on the counter. You can also place them in a preheated oven and warm them up once they thaw.

These Semolina Bread loaves make excellent crostini!

Full Recipe

Semolina Bread with sesame seed crust is truly irresistible! It has slightly nutty sweet taste, bight yellow color and unique texture.

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  • durum wheat semolina flour (high protein) , 420 grams
  • , 294 grams
  • instant dry yeast , 2 grams
  • , leveled teaspoon 8 grams
  • , 75 grams

Prepare no-yeast starter

  • Add to the starter mix the remaining water and yeast. Knead briefly then add salt.Knead for 4 minutes using a mixer with a dough hook or for 10 minutes by hand.½ tsp instant dry yeast, 2 tsp salt
  • Make a couple of dough folds until a smooth ball forms. Place it in a bowl and cut a cross with a knife.
  • Cover with a plastic wrap and let rise until almost triple in size. It should take anywhere between 2.5 and 4 hours depending on the ambient temperature.

Shape the loaves

  • Once the dough has risen divide it into a few pieces. Depending on the loaf size you want to make you can divide it into 9 ounces (250 g) or 4.5-5 ounces loaves (125-150g).
  • Take each piece of the dough and flatten it out with the tips of your fingers or using a rolling pin.
  • Roll into a 2 inch thick roll. It should be no less than 2 inches or 5 cm in diameter. Thinner rolls will dry out in the oven too much!Pinch the seal and place on a lightly floured surface seal down. Repeat the process with the remaining dough.
  • Using a spray bottle lightly spray each dough roll with water than dip wet side down in sesame seeds.½ cup sesame seeds
  • Arrange the bread rolls on the baking sheet well distanced apart as they’ll almost double when cooked.

Scoring & final proofing

  • Using scissors make a few side cuts on each side of the loaf. On bigger loaves I like to make classic slit cuts with a sharp knife.
  • Cover with clear plastic poly bag, tuck it under the baking sheet letting some air in so that the bag won’t touch the dough. As an alternative you can place a couple of glasses on the baking sheet between the bread loaves and cover everything with a plastic wrap. Glassed will prevent the plastic stick to the dough.
  • Let rise for 30-60 minutes. Again depending on the room temperature.


If you haven’t tried semolina bread yet, you’ll be pleasantly surprised with your new discovery.


This flour is obtained from the accurate selection of specific white wheats from both Emilia – Romagna and Le Marche regions.

RECOMMENDED FOR:straight doughs which don’t require too long fermentations like Marche- style bread, Tuscan-style bread and Terni-style bread. it is also suitable for piadina.

  • PACK: 25 kg
  • W 180 – 200
  • P/L 0,50 – 0,55


It is the flour most commonly used by bakers.This flour is the resuIt of a selected blend of our region Le Marche’s finest wheats together with those from Emilia-Romagna region.

RECOMMENDED FOR:all types of baking which don’t require excessively long rising times. It is also suitable for piadina.

  • PACK: 25 kg
  • W 200 – 220
  • P/L 0,50 – 0,60


This flour derives from the selection of the best wheats from both Le Marche and Emilia – Romagna regions, belonging to the qualitative classes of the superior bread-making wheat.

RECOMMENDED FOR:doughs requiring both medium and long rising times which also need high stability and excellent elasticity.

  • PACK: 25 kg
  • W 280 – 300
  • P/L 0,60 – 0,70


Durum wheat semolina obtained from the selection of durum wheats. The high quality of the proteins and the uniform grain size enable the development of the organoleptic features of the final product.

RECOMMENDED FOR:apulian bread characterized by a more intense color and by thicker crumbs.


It is a speciality of our Molino Paolo Mariani family, obtained from the first break of the wheat grains during our milling process.It is from this product that a new technique of spontaneous fermentation was born: the hydrolysis.

RECOMMENDED FOR:innovative products in which the taste of the fibre is enhanced. It is suitable for bread, pizza and pastry.


This flour is made from selected wheats coming from both Le Marche and Emilia-Romagna regions by implementingour milling process ‘tuttocorpo’, exclusively conceptualized for the first time in Italy by our Molino Paolo Mariani family: the wheat grain is milled in its entirety, leaving all the characteristics of the grain unaltered.

RECOMMENDED FOR:short-medium fermentations.

  • PACK: 25 kg
  • W 230 – 250
  • P/L 0,65 – 0,75


Remilled durum wheat semolina made from the blend of the best varieties of durum wheats.

RECOMMENDED FOR:apulian bread, pizza and focaccia.


‘To develop a strong flour but with a 100% Italian soul and with superior characteristics of the Canadian Manitoba one by enhancing the full potential of our territory’.This is what has encouraged our Molino Paolo Mariani family to create MANITALY for the first time.

RECOMMENDED FOR:long fermentation processes, for the preparation of biga and for natural yeast.

  • PACK: 1-25 kg
  • W 350 – 380
  • P/L 0,65 – 0,75


In our milling process, the fibre and the wheat germ are not initially separated from the flour and then added again in a second phase, but instead, they are milled together, fully respecting the nature of the wheat grain by leaving all its characteristics unaltered.More fibre, more taste and more digestibility: these are the ingredients that make our WHOLE WHEAT MANITALY so unique!

RECOMMENDED FOR:for pre-ferments and types of bread requiring medium-long rising times.

  • PACK: 1 – 25 kg
  • W 330 – 350
  • P/L 0,65 – 0,75


RECOMMENDED FOR:bread characterized by fermentations with natural leavening processes.

  • PACK: 25 kg
  • W 230 – 250
  • P/L 0,55 – 0, 65


Flour obtained from the best Italian high-protein wheats. Ideal for medium and long fermentations.During the fermentation processes, this flour can easily express its full potential without causing particular problems thanks to its right amount of fibre.

RECOMMENDED FOR:bread characterized by long fermentation processes with natural leavening processes and it is also ideal for preparations with biga.

  • PACK: 25 kg
  • W 330 – 360
  • P/L 0,70 – 0,80


Flour produced with the best wheat varieties coming from both Emilia-Romagna and Le Marche regions.During the milling process we select the inner fibre of the wheat grain since they develop pleasant aromatic components.

  • PACK: 1-25 kg
  • W 230 – 250
  • P/L 0,65 – 0,75


Flour obtained from the blend of the best high-protein wheats from our Le Marche region.This flour has a unique identity since it derives from a specific milling process in which the inner fibre of the wheat grain have been intentionally chosen because of their intense aroma and flavor.

RECOMMENDED FOR:bread characterized by natural fermentations with long rising times.

  • PACK: 25 kg
  • W 320 – 340
  • P/L 0,70 – 0,80


Our miller is able to obtain different types of flour (type 1, type 2, etc.) from the same blend of wheats by just varying the milling process itself. This is exactly what happens to our Mazì flour: one version Type 1 (1kg) and another version Type 2 (12,5 kg).

  • PACK: 1 kg – Mazì Type 1
  • PACK: 25 kg – Mazì Type 2
  • W 190 – 210*

*These values may slightly vary according to the harvest year.


The wheat of crunchiness.Our Alpha flour has distinct traits: a soft and solid granularity, due to the caryopsis’s softness of this specific wheat variety.From a visual perspective, this flour appears of a typical ice white color.Considering, instead, Alpha’s baking qualities, it must be said that it is a flour with a protein percentage between 10% and 11%, characterized by a good extensibility.It is ideal for cold fermentations, due to the minimum amylase activity of the flour.Therefore, the addition of diastase malt during a direct fermentation process is suggested.With Alpha flour it is possible to obtain final products, like bread and pizza, marked by a distinctive crunchiness and by typical ivory white crumbs.


The wheat of meltiness.Beta flour is very soft to the touch, almost resembling a starch.From a visual point of view, it is of a milky white color.This flour is so unique it has a protein percentage of about 11-12%, a good stability with a great extensibility.Its peculiarity consists of a specific starch which has the perfect balance of amylose and amylopectin.And it is because of this mix of characteristics that Beta can be defined as an ‘all-purpose’ flour.For example, considering the pizza and the bread dough, this flour is ideal for short fermentations with a good workability and meltiness but, at the same time, Beta flour is also great to be mixed with high protein flours, helping in eliminating that ‘chewy’ effect that some products, obtained with long fermentation processes, might have (such as Roman style pizza).The crumbs of the final product appear of a typical glossy white color.


The wheat of Integrale Indefinito.From a visual perspective, Gamma flour has a typical light brown color with clearly visible grains of the fibre which are easily recognizable since they haven’t been entirely ‘broken’ during the several phases of the milling process.Different from the other whole wheat flours, Gamma is a protein flour which, thanks to the milling process that is extremely gentle on the fibre, is able to bear long kneading and regular fermentations, without excessive oxidations.This special flour gives to the final product an exceptional flavor, characterized by intense aromas of wheat and dried fruits.


The wheat of natural yeast.Zeta flour has a higher level of granulometry if compared to a normal white flour: this is a typical feature of the high-protein wheats.From a visual perspective, it is possible to say that the flour tends towards a peculiar straw yellow color.Therefore, Zeta is a high-protein flour with a great stability and a balanced extensibility.In particular, our pluriannual research studies regarding the maintenance of the natural yeast have clearly demonstrated that this is the ideal and perfect wheat variety to make and maintain the natural yeast.In this way, the yeast can fully express its intense aromas, reminding to the fragrances of the freshly harvested wheat crops.The natural yeast appears to be of a perfect ivory white color.Zeta is ideal for biga and for long fermentation processes.


  • We worked closely with pizza makers (professional and home) to develop this special blend of flavorful organic Turkey Red Wheat and high-protein Hard Red Spring Wheat. Our testers found that this finely-sifted flour (70% extraction, which is as close to 00 as you can get with stone-milling) is perfect for either airy Italian style pizza (with a longer rise time) or crisp New York style pizza (short rise time). And it has the gluten strength needed to support all your favorite toppings!NOTE: This flour, like all stone-milled flours, is not pure white. It is a light beige color because the nutritious germ and some of the bran are present.While this flour is perfect for pizza, it’s also great for focaccia, ciabatta, pane casareccio, and many other Italian (and non-Italian!) breads and baked goods. Any time you want a highly-sifted, high-protein, flavorful flour, try this one!
  • Great to Use In:
    Pizza, Focaccia, Ciabatta, Pane Casareccio, Pita bread, Flat breads, Pasta.
  • Blend of organic Turkey Red (Heirloom) and organic Hard Red Spring Wheat

Certifications You Can Trust

We are proud to have these three 3rd-party certification seals on every single product that comes out of Janie’s Mill.  They show you that an independent organization has determined that our products comply with specific requirements for safety, quality, and provenance. You can then enjoy Janie’s Mill products in full confidence that they are organic, kosher, wholesome, and delicious!

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