shows the baking properties of bread obtained from the wheat flour brands. Except for the density of the bread samples which was very similar, the specific volume (4.04–5.02 cm3/g) and baking loss (3.35–4.02%) were significantly different (). Specific volume of bread is greatly influenced by bread weight and volume and has economic implications. Gluten contributes significantly to the viscoelastic properties of wheat dough and these properties are important during dough fermentation and carbon dioxide entrapment (Akintayo et al., ). Brand B flour showed the highest specific volume value of 5.02 cm3/g, and this may be explained by its higher protein content () and higher GI () compared to the other brands. Previous researchers reported significant positive correlations of protein content (r = 0.826) and GI (r = 0.557) with bread-specific volume (Barak, Mudgil, & Khatkar, ). The specific volume of bread indicates the final gas retention in the bread and influences consumer preference. Hence, it is regarded as the most important parameter in bread making. The specific volume result agrees with data (2.03–5.49 cm3/g) previously reported (Balarabe, Mohammed, & Orukotan, ; Ndife, Obiegbunna, & Ajayi, ; Schopf & Scherf, ).
Enzyme activity and rheological test
The enzyme activity in the flour samples was determined using the falling number machine as described by Shao et al. (). The rheological analysis was done using the Chopin Alveograph (Paris, France) according to the American Association of Cereal Chemists Method 54-30A (AACCI, ). The alveostrength of the flour samples was determined from the resulting graph.
Gluten properties and enzyme activity
The gluten content of wheat flour is essential in assessing the quality of wheat flour. The wet gluten (30.10–33.70%) and dry gluten (10.10–11.20%) were slightly different among the flour brands (). The wet gluten contents of the four flour brands are within the range (20.90–40.00%) reported by earlier researchers (Chavoushi, Kadivar, Arzani, & Sabzalian, ; Kulkarni, Ponte, & Kulp, ; Naveen, Singh, & Ravinder, ). Both wet (r = −0.75, p ≤ 0.01) and dry gluten (r = −0.81, p ≤ 0.01) showed a significant but negative correlation with the protein content of the flour samples (). The higher coefficient of variation for dry gluten compared to the wet gluten samples confirms an earlier study that dry gluten determination should be the preferred procedure for gluten content determination (Kulkarni, Ponte, & Kulp, ). The wet (r = −0.92, p ≤ 0.05) and dry gluten (r = −0.89, p ≤ 0.05) contents also negatively correlated with the WAC of the flour samples (). This result indicates that the higher the gluten content, the lower the ability of the flours to absorb water. This seems plausible since higher protein content would mean a lower carbohydrate content and the bulk of water absorption in flours is closely related to the carbohydrate content including starch. The hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of gluten proteins has been reported to influence the WAC of wheat flour (Schopf & Scherf, ). Another factor that may influence WAC is the particle size of the flour (Dahesh, Banc, Duri, Morel, & Ramos, ; Ortolan, Urbano, & Steel, ). According to Don, Mann, Bekes, and Hamer (), the gluten content is not only the index to determine wheat quality. Gluten index (GI) can also be used to further classify wheat flours, especially when the wheat has similar amounts of proteins (Ortolan, Urbano, & Steel, ). The GI obtained in this study ranged between 92.75 and 96.45% for brands A and B, respectively (). The GI is the amount of gluten retained in the sieve after wet gluten centrifugation (Barak, Mudgil, & Khatkar, ) and indicates the degree of extensibility of gluten (Oikonomou, Bakalis, Rahman, & Krokida, ). The relatively high GI values of the flour samples in this study indicate a strong gluten network and higher gluten quality. Hu and Shang () noted that high-quality wheat varieties usually contain less wet gluten but higher GI. Variation in gluten quantity and quality is also influenced by the genotype and prevailing environmental conditions such as climate, fertilizer usage, and soil (Naveen, Singh, & Ravinder, ).
Composition, Functionality, and Baking Quality of Flour from Four Brands of Wheat Flour
Gluten and rheological properties of different brands of wheat flour.
Physical properties of bread from different brands of wheat flour.
Pearson correlation matrix for rheological, functional, and textural properties of different brands of wheat flour.
Functional properties of wheat flours
The functional properties including loose bulk density (LBD), packed bulk density (PBD) water absorption capacity (WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) are shown in . The OAC, LBD and PBD were very similar across the flour types but the ability of the flours to absorb water varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 2.10 to 2.90 mL/g for brands C and A, respectively (). WAC of flours is influenced by carbohydrate content, especially starch as well as fiber contents (Oyeyinka et al., ). The higher WAC of brand A flour may be associated with its significantly higher fiber content (). Differences in the WAC of flour samples have also been attributed to variation in protein content (Oyeyinka et al., ). Proteins can bind to large amounts of water because they can form hydrogen bonds between polar groups on the polypeptide chain and water molecules (Mohajan, Orchy, & Farzana, ).
Granulation and functional properties of different brands of wheat flour.
The baking loss of loaves was calculated by weighing the dough (A) before and the loaf after baking (B). The baking loss expressed in percentage was calculated using Equation 1. % Baking loss
The specific volume was determined using the seed displacement method (Nwosu, Elochukwu, & Onwurah, ). The specific volume (cm3/g) was calculated as loaf volume/bread weight.
Flour and bread color and sensory properties of bread
The color of wheat flour samples varied marginally as indicated on . All the flour samples had substantially high lightness (L*) values (approx. 91), low greeness (−0.40 to −0.29) and yellowness values (10.53–11.01). Except for the L* values of the crust, the resulting bread samples showed similar a* and b* values for crumb and crust (). The variation in the L* values of the crust indicates variation in the extent of browning during baking. Crust formation and browning of bread are due to Maillard reaction between sugars and proteins and variation in flour composition can significantly influence the extent of crust formation during baking. The values of a* and b* are always higher in the crust than in the crumb and this is attributed to caramelization and Maillard reactions that occur during crust formation (Jusoh, Chin, Yusof, & Rahman, ).
The sensory analysis of the loaves was carried out within 24 h of baking using a 9-point hedonic scale, where 1 and 9 represent “dislike extremely” and “like extremely,” respectively. The loaf samples were assessed by 50 semi-trained panelists drawn from staff and students within the Department of Home Economics and Food Science, University of Ilorin. Participants were mandated to rinse their mouths with water before and between sample testing. Bread samples were evaluated for taste, crust color, appearance, texture, and overall acceptability. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Departmental Research and Ethical Committee.
Bleached vs Unbleached Flour
All types of flour fall into one of two categories: bleached and unbleached flour. This distinction refers to how the flour was processed, which affects the flour’s flavor, texture, appearance, and uses. The difference between unbleached and bleached flour is that bleached flour is refined and treated with chemicals to speed up aging during processing, while unbleached flour is aged naturally and has a much coarser texture.
Unbleached flour is not refined or treated with chemicals during processing, which results in a rougher texture than bleached flour. Furthermore, it undergoes a natural aging process to prepare it for baking, which takes much longer than the sped-up aging process of bleached flour. As a result, unbleached flour has an off-white color and is rich in fiber, vitamin E, antioxidants, and manganese in addition to standard flour’s nutritional value.
Used for: pastries, cream puffs, yeast bread, eclairs
Characteristics: Tough, dense, grainy, off-white
During processing, bleached flour is refined by removing the wheat kernel’s bran and germ before milling the wheat. Then, the flour is bleached using chemical agents like benzoyl peroxide, potassium bromate, or chlorine to increase the speed of the aging process. This procedure results in a white color and malleable texture for the flour, making it excellent for many baking endeavors.
Used for: pie crusts, pancakes, waffles, muffins, quick bread, cookies
Characteristics: Soft, fine grain, white
The baking procedure described by Akintayo et al. () was adopted for bread production except that baking was done at 180°C for 30 min. The loaves were then removed from the oven and cooled at room temperature. The cooled loaves were then packed into polyethylene bags until subsequent analysis.
Types of Gluten Free Flour
Many types of gluten-free flour are available to accommodate customers with dietary restrictions. Since the base of these flours is something other than wheat, the varying flavors and textures provide a unique twist on your typical baked goods. With foundations stemming from nuts, roots, and vegetables, ask customers about any additional allergies before serving them. Additionally, check if your chosen gluten-free flour requires any special inclusions that help with the baking process before using it.
- Almond flour: Able to replace all-purpose flour in a 1:1 ratio, almond flour contains many healthy fats and fibers and adds a pleasant, nutty flavor to your baked goods.
- Cassava flour: Made by grinding down a South American root vegetable called yuca, cassava flour is an ideal substitute for white flour due to its neutral flavor and consistency.
- Corn flour: Corn flour is made from finely-ground corn kernels, adding a unique taste and color to quesadillas, pizza crust, and chicken or fish breading.
- Rice Flour: Rice flour is used in Asian recipes for rice noodles, cakes, and pastries. Brown rice flour is present in desserts such as cookies due to its flavor.
- Tapioca flour: Made using a starchy root from the cassava root, tapioca flour is used as a thickening agent in soups and pies or is combined with other flours to make bread.
- Oat flour: As a popular gluten-free option, oat flour provides a chewy, crumbly texture to your baked goods.
- Coconut flour: Other than adding a distinct coconut flavor to your food, coconut flour is a great all-purpose flour substitute for bread and desserts.
- Buckwheat flour: Despite what the name implies, buckwheat flour does not contain wheat grain. Its high antioxidant content and earthy flavor make it ideal for baking delicious homemade bread.
- Chickpea flour: With a nutty taste and coarse texture, chickpea flour makes delicious gluten-free flatbread and batter-based foods.
- Teff flour: The best use for teff flour is making fermented sourdough bread from Ethiopia, but you can also utilize it to make cereals or batter-based foods.
- Sorghum flour: Sorghum flour comes from sorghum, a cereal grain high in protein and fiber. Its density and mildly sweet flavor taste great in pancakes, muffins, and flatbread.
- Arrowroot flour: Primarily used as a thickening agent for sauces and puddings, arrowroot flour combines with other gluten-free flour to make bread, cookies, or cakes.
Technological properties of wheat flours
The particle size distribution of the wheat flours measured as the mass of fraction retained in each sieve arranged in order of decreasing mesh size is presented in . Particle size distribution is dependent on the granule structure, degree of processing and the chemical composition of the flour (Alviola & Monterde, ). Brand A (63.25) and B (67.95) flours had higher thrus compared to Brands C and D, indicating they contained a greater amount of finer particles and could explain their higher WAC (). The degree of flour hydration is greatly dependent on the granularity of the flour used. The finer the particle size of flour, the greater its rate and extent of water absorption. Furthermore, wheat flour particle size distribution has a great effect on flour functional properties such as swelling and water-binding capacity, which can significantly impact baking (Katyal et al., ).
The loose and pack bulk densities of the flours were determined as reported by Falade and Oyeyinka (). A 100 mL measuring cylinder was filled with flour to mark 100 mL and the content was weighed and recorded as loose bulk density. The packed bulk density of the samples was also determined using this method but with additional gentle taps, 50 times before the weight was taken. Bulk density was calculated as the ratio of the bulk weight and the volume of the container (g/mL).
What Is Patent Flour?
Patent flour is a pure, high-quality flour made from the center part of the endosperm. The amount of straight flour that patent flour contains determines whether a bread flour is short patent (70-80% straight flour), medium patent (80-90% straight flour), or long patent (90-95% straight flour).
Note: Straight flour refers to flour in which 100% of the wheat kernel has had the bran and germ removed.
Textural properties of bread
The springiness, chewiness, and gumminess of the bread samples were very similar but the hardness and cohesiveness varied significantly (). Hardnesss, also referred to as firmness is perhaps the most important textural property of bread. It is used to ascertain the quality of bread and relates to bread freshness. Higher bread firmness value is linked with retrogradation and staling in bread and is largely affected by moisture level, moisture migration, moisture redistribution (Eriksson, Koch, Akonor, & Oduro-Yeboah, ; Osella, Sánchez, Carrara, de la Torre, & Pilar Buera, ) as well as gluten–starch interactions (Eriksson, Koch, Akonor, & Oduro-Yeboah, ; Every, Gerrard, Gilpin, Ross, & Newberry, ). Bread cohesiveness showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.84, p ≤ 0.05) with protein content but a negative correlation with wet (r = −0.98, p ≤ 0.05) and dry gluten (r = −0.99, p ≤ 0.05). The negative correlation of cohesiveness with the gluten content suggests that the higher the gluten content, the less cohesive the dough is and this obviously would result in a more adhesive dough. The gliadin component of gluten is known to be very sticky when wet and extensible and imparts adhesive properties to wheat flour. Furthermore, hardness data showed significant negative correlation with the protein content of the flour (r = −0.83, p ≤ 0.01) but a positive correlation (r = 0.88, p ≤ 0.05) with energy needed to blow up the dough bubble, chewiness (r = 0.70, p ≤ 0.01) and gumminess (r = 0.85, p ≤ 0.05) (). Although there was a correlation between hardness and protein content, no correlation was observed with gluten indicating the role of other non-flour components like starch, fiber and non-gluten proteins in bread hardness. Amylose and amylopectin contents of starch and their chain length distribution are also important factors that can significantly influence the hardness of bread. Roman, Reguilon, Gomez, and Martinez () reported that amylose chain length contributed to softer and more cohesive crumbs. Therefore, it is plausible to attribute the variation in the hardness of the bread in this study to the structure of the starch components.
Selected textural and sensory properties of bread from different flour brands.
Flour Protein Content
Flour protein content varies depending on the brand and type of flour you plan to use. Bread flour, whole wheat flour, white whole wheat flour, and all-purpose flour contain protein ranging from 10% to 15% of their serving sizes. In contrast, pastry flour, cake flour, and self-rising flour contain far less protein than other types, as low as 6% of their serving sizes.
Protein in flour affects gluten formation in your dough, which impacts the texture of baked goods. More protein means more gluten develops, which might create a rubbery texture in your bread or pastries if handled incorrectly. Knowing your flour’s protein content and mixing instructions ensures your final product bakes to perfection.
You can calculate flour protein content based on the nutrition label using this simple equation:
Protein Quantity (grams) ÷ Serving Size (grams) x 100 = % Protein
Hard Flour vs Soft Flour
The terms “hard flour” and “soft flour” refer to the amount of protein in the flour. Hard flour is high in protein and gluten with a minimum protein content of 12%. As a result of the protein, hard flour is gritty and crumbly compared to flour with lower protein levels. In contrast, soft flour contains only 7% to 9% protein and is much smoother and finer than hard flour. Bread flour usually falls under hard flour, while soft flours are cake and pastry flour.
Texture analysis of bread
Bread texture was assessed using a texture analyzer (Universal Textural Machine, LR 5K, Lloyd Instruments Ltd., England) as described by Olojede, Sanni, and Banwo () with slight modifications. The TPA was performed by two sequential compression events (speed 102 mm/min; 50% compression; 5 KN load). The textural properties were calculated from the obtained profile using the software provided by Nexgen (Lloyd material testing, West Sussex, U.K).
Types of Flour Chart
Understand the various kinds of flour and their primary uses with this types of flour chart.
Experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) Using SPSS Version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were carried out with Fisher’s least significant difference test with a significance level of 5%. Further statistical analysis was done using the Pearson correlation (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) to establish the relationship between the selected flour and bread properties. All measurements were performed at least in triplicate.
Gluten content was determined according to American Association of Cereal Chemists Method 38–12 (AACCI, ) using a Glutomatic system (Perten Instruments, Huddinge, Sweden). Briefly, the flour sample (10 g) was weighed and packed into the machine to form a dough. The resulting dough was then washed with 2% (w/v) salt solution and centrifuged into a specially constructed sieve under standard conditions. The centrifuged doughs and remainders were weighed and then the weight of the wet gluten was calculated. The dry gluten yield was determined by drying wet gluten in a freeze dryer for 24 h and dry yield was calculated as the ratio of the weight of dry gluten obtained to the weight of the flour multiplied by 100 (Kaushik, Kumar, Sihag, & Ray, ).
Different Types of Flour
Whether you own a bakery, restaurant, cafe, or coffee shop, understanding the different types of flour and their uses allows you to offer customers high-quality food. Homemade bread, pasta, and pastries use flour as their base ingredient, but the ideal flour for each varies. In addition to the dough’s malleability, flour affects flavor, texture, and protein content. Regardless of the type of flour you use, remember to measure flour with a food scale for the most accurate measurement.
Below are 12 common types of flour, their primary uses, and their textures.
For soft, moist baked goods, cake flour is the ideal choice. It has the lowest protein content of gluten-based flour, making it less structured than the others. Additionally, it is milled extra-fine and bleached, allowing it to absorb more liquids and fats to make a deliciously moist cake. This flour is easily the best to make different cakes, so be careful when using substitutes while baking cakes.
Used for: Cake, chiffon, muffins, scones
Characteristics: Soft flour, fine, extra-absorbent. Creates a moist, spongey final product.
Bread flour has a high protein content compared to all-purpose flour to create the ideal chewy texture for loaves of bread. Due to the amount of protein, the mixing process forms more gluten and helps the bread rise without collapsing. This gluten structure results in a porous, chewy texture for your bread.
Used for: Bread, sourdough, cookies, pretzels, bagels, pizza dough
Characteristics: Hard flour, coarse, elastic. Creates an airy, chewy final product.
Semolina flour is milled from durum wheat, which gives it a nutty flavor and yellow hue. Its high protein content keeps it intact when stretched and kneaded, making it perfect for homemade pasta. However, semolina flour is also found in bread, biscuits, and other baked goods.
Used for: Pasta, couscous, bread, gnocchi, puddings
Characteristics: Hard flour, sandy, easily thickens. Creates an elastic dough that holds its shape under cooking conditions.
Also known as doppio zero flour, 00 flour is a popular choice for many Italian dishes. Durum wheat is milled to an extremely fine consistency to form the flour. This quality and the flour’s high protein content allow it to be rolled and stretched thin to make pasta without breaking, maintaining its shape during cooking.
Used for: Pasta, pizza dough, flatbreads, focaccia, gnocchi, crackers
Characteristics: Hard flour, super-fine grain, easy to blend and roll. Creates a strong, chewy final product.
Named for the wheat it’s made from, spelt flour is milled from entire grains rather than part of the grain. It has medium protein content, making it an ideal substitute for all-purpose flour. However, the most unique aspect of spelt flour is its flavor, which many describe as slightly sweet, tangy, and nutty.
Used for: Desserts like cookies, cakes, and muffins, combined with other flours to make bread
Characteristics: Soft, sticky, medium protein content. Creates a soft, airy final product.
Whole Wheat Flour
Unlike other types of flour, whole wheat flour is milled from the endosperm, germ, and bran of the wheat kernel. These extra elements give goods baked with whole wheat a dense, nutty quality, but they make the flour challenging to use during baking. While this flour is high in protein, it does not form gluten well. Additionally, whole wheat flour is more perishable than other flour, so store it in a freezer or refrigerator to increase its shelf life.
Used for: Bread, cookies, pancakes, pasta
Characteristics: Hard flour, grainy, coarse. Creates sticky dough and a dense final product.
Rye flour comes from rye, not the typical red or white wheat used to make flour. It has a low protein content and less gluten than all-purpose flour, creating a unique density in bread baked from it. Additionally, rye flour has a unique, nutty flavor and distinct texture that adds flair to baked goods.
Used for: Bread, cookies, pie crust
Characteristics: Soft flour, dark, doesn’t rise as well. Creates a moist and dense final product.
As the happy medium between cake flour and all-purpose flour, pastry flour has low protein content and is bleached during processing. Its fine texture makes it easy to blend with other ingredients. Due to these qualities, pastry flour creates flaky, tender, mouthwatering goods. Pastry flour also has a lot of substitutes due to its similarities to all-purpose flour and cake flour.
Used for: Pie crusts, tarts, croissants, cookies, muffins, biscuits, pound cakes, and other pastries
Characteristics: Soft flour, bleached, fine texture. Creates a flaky, tender final product.
White Whole Wheat Flour
Many people consider white whole wheat flour the unhealthy version of whole wheat flour, but this is not the case. The primary differentiator of white whole wheat flour is that it’s milled from a light variant of white hard winter wheat, which causes a softer texture and sweeter taste. Like whole wheat bread, it uses all three parts of the wheat kernel and contains the same high protein content and nutritional value as its counterpart.
Used for: Bread, cookies, muffins
Characteristics: Hard flour, grainy texture, sweet and mild taste. Creates a sticky dough and dense final product.
The distinctive feature of self-rising flour is the addition of salt and baking powder during the milling process. These elements act as leavening agents, providing an easy shortcut while baking. However, do not substitute self-rising flour for other flour because the salt and baking powder will cause problems in those recipes.
Used for: Biscuits, scones, pancakes,
Characteristics: Soft flour, finely milled. Creates a light, airy final product.
A staple of every kitchen in bakeries, restaurants, and cafes, all-purpose flour is precisely what its name implies. Its versatility is due to its average protein content, containing a combination of hard and soft wheat with a remarkably stable shelf-life. Capable of creating flaky pie crusts and chewy cookies, all-purpose flour is the ideal flour for nearly any task.
Characteristics: Neutral texture that varies based on bleached or unbleached nature.
Often referred to by the popular brand name Wondra, instant flour is a low protein, finely milled, pre-cooked flour. Due to this, the flour dissolves instantly in hot liquids without clumping and saves you time since it is not raw. Check the recipe carefully for instructions on how to use instant flour and possible substitutes.
Used for: Thickening sauces and gravies, battering, crepes, pie crusts
Characteristics: Soft flour, pre-cooked, easily dissolved. Creates a smooth, thick final product.
3 Results and discussion
Table 1 Proximate composition1 and CIELAB colour2 of wheat, OFSP and pumpkin flour
Full size table
Dough rheological properties
Table 2 Rheological properties of doughs from wheat, OFSP and pumpkin blended flours
Contour plots showing the influence of wheat, OFSP and pumpkin flour proportions on farinograph optimum water absorption (a), dough development time (b), stability time (c), degree of softening (d) of the composite bread dough. The red round marks represent the design points
Full size image
Physical properties of bread
Table 3 Physical characteristics of wheat-OFSP-Pumpkin composite bread and the ANOVA results for the mixture × process model
Response surface plots showing the effects of wheat OFSP flour proportions, pumpkin flour (15%), baking temperature and baking time (19 min) on loaf volume (a), specific volume (b), crumb moisture content (c), and water activity (d) of the composite bread
A linear × quadratic cross-model for flour mixture and baking conditions respectively was the most adequate model for defining the physical quality attributes of the composite bread as influenced by flour proportions and baking conditions. The model statistics are shown in Table 3 whereas the model equations for describing specific volume (SV) and crumb moisture content (MC) are indicated in Eqs. (7) and (8), respectively.
Crust and crumb colour
Table 4 CIELAB L*, a*, b* colour parameters of the wheat-OFSP-pumpkin composite bread as influenced by flour proportions and baking conditions
Response surface plots showing the effects of wheat and OFSP flour proportions, pumpkin flour (15%), baking temperature and baking time (19 min) on L*, a*, and b.* colour values for the composite bread crust (a, b and c respectively) and crumb (d, e and f respectively)
The experimental data for the L* and b* of the composite bread crust were adequately explained by a linear × linear model whereas the crust a* was sufficiently predicted by a linear × quadratic crossed model. The model fitness statistics are presented in Table 4. The model equations for predicting the crust L*, a* and b values in terms of the proportions of the wheat (A), OFSP (B) and pumpkin flours (C), baking temperature (D) and time (E) are summarized in Eqs. (9–11), respectively.
Crumb textural properties
Table 5 Textural properties of wheat-OFSP-pumpkin composite bread crumbs as affected by flour proportions and baking conditions
Response surface plots showing the influence of wheat and OFSP flour proportion, pumpkin flour (15%), and baking temperature on hardness (a), cohesiveness (b) springiness (c), chewiness (d) and resilience (e) as well as the effect of baking time on crumb hardness (f), cohesiveness (g), springiness (h), chewiness (i) and resilience (j) of the composite bread
Table 6 Regression coefficients of crossed-model (Linear × quadratic) and fitness statistics for predicting the textural properties of the bread crumbs in terms of actual settings of processing factors
Influence of processing factors on bread staling
Staling rate on the crumb staling rate after 24 h of storage (a) and response surface plots showing the influence of baking temperature (b) and baking time (c) on the staling rate of composite bread. Data presented are average values of three replicated measurements. Error bars represent standard deviation Values with different lower case letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)
Relationship between quality characteristics of dough and bread
Additionally, the relationship between the dough and bread quality properties was established by the PCA. The OWA had a significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation with crumb moisture content (r = 0.689) and aw (r = 0.776). Furthermore, OWA, loaf volume, specific volume, crumb cohesiveness, springiness and resilience have strong positive relationships (r = 0.755–0.945, p < 0.01) whereas crumb hardness and chewiness also exhibited a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.944, p < 0.01). Nonetheless, OWA, specific volume, and springiness showed a strong negative correlation with crumb hardness (r = −0.764 to −0.937, p < 0.01). This study has found that some properties of dough namely OWA could be applied to predict the physical and textural properties of the composite bread.
Optimization of the processing factors
Table 7 Optimization criteria and predicted values of the dough and bread quality properties of the optimized composite bread formula