Evaluation of Thermal Degradation of Tropane and Opium Alkaloids in Gluten-Free Corn Breadsticks Samples Contaminated with Stramonium Seeds and Baked with Poppy Seeds under Different Conditions

Poppy seeds produced from the opium poppy plant, Papaver somniferum, were discovered in ancient times, around 5000 B.C. Poppy seeds began to grow in popularity after being used for baking, cooking, and medical purposes. Although they taste good and hold healing properties, can poppy seeds get you high?

The plant sales are here and gardeners are revving up. You may have some questions. For answers, turn to Ask an Expert, an online question-and-answer tool from Oregon State University’s Extension Service. OSU Extension faculty and Master Gardeners reply to queries within two business days, usually less. To ask a question, simply go to the OSU Extension website , type it in, and include the county where you live. Here are some questions asked by other gardeners. What’s yours?

Q: Can seeds from garden poppies be used like the ones you buy for baking? – Lane County

A: Poppy seeds for baking come from Papaver somniferum, commonly known as breadseed or opium poppy. This is the same poppy that opium comes from and while it is legal to grow them in the garden and buy and sell the seeds, it is illegal to manufacture opium from them.

Before Papaver somniferum seeds can be used in baking, they are carefully dried and prepared. This process also removes the possibility of serious side effects by greatly reducing the amount of the opium alkaloid they contain that allows them to be legally used in your kitchen. All parts of poppies except the seeds are toxic, but they can be easily contaminated if not prepared properly. This is something that should only be done by a reputable company, so it is important to only buy poppy seeds for use in baking from one of these companies.

So, no, garden poppy seeds should not be used in baking. Instead, save the seeds to plant and grow more poppies in the coming seasons. California poppies are terrific plants that are native to Oregon and attract bees.

More information on breadseed and California poppies:

Top 10 Oregon Native Plants for Pollinators: California Poppy

Papaver Somniferum: Breadseed or Opium Poppy

–Jan Gano, OSU Extension Master Gardener

In India, where they are known as khuskhus, poppy seeds were used as a food source more than 5,000 years ago. About 2,000 years ago, the seeds were also found in Native American societies, where they were very important for both food and rituals.

Poppy seeds have a rich history dating back to ancient civilizations. In addition to their practical uses as an ingredient in food and beverages, poppy seeds also feature prominently in various cultural practices and rituals. These tiny, bitter-tasting seeds are produced by several species of the poppy plant. The most common type of poppy seed is that from the blue or black opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Poppy seeds are commonly used as a spice or seasoning, but they also have many other uses.

Here is an introduction to the origin, history, and many uses of poppy seeds.

Poppy seeds are the tiny edible seeds of the poppy plant. The seeds come from the same plant as opium (made from the sap of the unripe seed pod), but are not in themselves psychoactive. In fact, poppy seeds are a source of food for humans and many other animals, and they have a long history of cultivation, with evidence dating to 10,000 BC.

The Origin of Poppy Seeds

Poppy seeds are widely believed to have originated in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions, where opium cultivation dates back to ancient times. The Sumerians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, who considered poppy seeds to be a valuable and highly prized food, harvested them to make oil, cake, and wine.

In the 8th century AD, Arab traders brought poppy seeds westward to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal), where they quickly became a very important commercial crop and a main source of income for the people. The first evidence of the use of poppy seeds in China dates back to 3,000 BC. In India, where they are known as khuskhus, poppy seeds were used as a food source more than 5,000 years ago. About 2,000 years ago, the seeds were also found in Native American societies, where they were very important for both food and rituals.

Ancient and Present Uses of Poppy Seeds

The ancient use of poppy seeds as a food source is evident in the fact that many modern-day foods and beverages contain poppy seeds. Poppy seeds can be found in a wide range of baked goods, such as cakes, rolls, muffins, scones, bagels, and pastries. Poppy seeds are also used in a wide variety of Asian, Central, and South American dishes, as well as in Mexican dishes like guacamole, salsas, and tacos.

Poppy seeds are an essential ingredient in many desserts, like baklava, a Middle Eastern pastry, and the Indian sweet shrikhand. They are also the main ingredient in traditional Thai salads.

Poppy seeds can be eaten both raw and roasted, though the flavor is stronger when roasted. Poppy seeds are also used in savory foods, like Indian curries, Mexican sauces, and guacamole.

Poppy seeds are used in cultural practices in India and Thailand as offerings to appease spirits. The Chinese use poppies as decorations during the Chinese New Year.

There are many good things about poppy seeds, but here are some of the most well-known ones:

•    Enhancement of fertility and libido.

•    Reduces sleeplessness: The opium poppy is known for its sedative properties and has long been used to reduce stress because of its calming properties.

•    Solid Bones: Poppy seeds are good for bone health because they have a lot of copper and calcium. They are also a great source of the protein collagen, which protects bones from damage.

•    Aids the digestive process: Poppy seeds have a lot of insoluble fiber that help the digestive process, and can be used to treat constipation as well as improve overall digestive health.

•    Benefits for Heart Health: Poppy seeds help lower bad cholesterol and keep healthy cholesterol levels steady. They also improve blood flow because they have iron in them, which lowers the risk of heart disease.

•    Benefits Mental Performance: Increased hemoglobin and improved blood purity are two benefits of this. Poppy seed consumption has been shown to increase blood flow, bringing a healthy dose of oxygen to every part of the body, including the brain. It can boost neurotransmitter efficiency, which in turn can enhance mental performance.

•    Kidney Stones: Poppy seeds, thanks to their potassium content, can be used to treat kidney stones and prevent them from forming again.

•    Thyroid: poppy seeds’ significant contribution to healthy thyroid function can be attributed to the zinc they contain.

•    Managing Diabetes: Poppy seeds contain manganese, which aids in the management of diabetes.

•    Non-Synthetic Pain Reliever: Poppy seeds have been used as a pain reliever for a long time by traditional medical practitioners.

This Tangerine Poppy Seed Cake is love at first bite. It’s moist and citrusy with a light crunchy texture. And best of all, this cake actually tastes like fresh tangerine!

If you’re looking for a truly delicious and unique cake recipe, this Tangerine Poppy Seed Cake is a must-try. Not only is it quick and easy to make, but it’s bursting with fresh orange flavor and a hint of nuttiness from the poppy seeds. This is a great recipe for taking advantage of the winter citrus season.

Ingredients for tangerine poppy seed cake

  • poppy seeds
  • milkwe’ll soak the poppy seeds in warm milk to soften them, and bring out their flavor.
  • we’ll soak the poppy seeds in warm milk to soften them, and bring out their flavor.
  • butter
  • flour
  • sugarboth granulated and confectioner’s
  • both granulated and confectioner’s
  • eggs
  • orange juice and zest
  • almond extractvanilla would be the more obvious choice, but I found almond extract
  • vanilla would be the more obvious choice, but I found almond extract
  • baking powder

Baking with poppy seeds

Many world cuisines bake with poppy seeds, but particularly Central and Eastern European, including German, Polish, Hungarian, Ukrainian, Russian, Slovak, and Czech. These cuisines typically bake sweet or savory pastries like poppy seed cake, poppy seed cookies, and poppy seed rolls. What sets these traditional poppy seed baked goods apart from the ones we bake here in the US is the sheer amount of seeds used ~ today I’m borrowing from that tradition; my cake uses a full cup!

Soaking poppy seeds in milk can bring out the natural sweetness of the seeds, as well as soften the crunchy texture. Soaking in milk makes the seeds more easily digestible, and also helps to release their natural oils, which adds an extra burst of flavor to recipes. Additionally, the process helps the body to better absorb the vitamins, minerals, and protein found in the poppy seeds.

Can you taste the poppy seeds in this tangerine cake?

When you have this many poppy seeds in a recipe, flavor is an issue ~ and poppy seeds do actually have a flavor. They’ve been called nutty, earthy, peppery, and slightly bitter. For me it’s mostly about that lovely crunch.

Can poppy seeds make you high?

No, poppy seeds do not make you high. Although poppy seeds do come from the poppy plant, the levels of psychoactive chemicals found in poppy seeds are too low to have any effect. Poppy seeds can, however make you fail a drug test as they contain trace amounts of opium, which may produce a false positive result. Therefore, it is advised that you avoid eating poppy seeds before undergoing a drug test.

Tangerine sugar boosts the citrus flavor

I love to make citrus sugars with lemons and oranges, and here I make tangerine sugar with the zest of a tangerine and the cup of sugar in the cake recipe. Processing them together in a food processor makes a bright fragrant citrus sugar that infuses the whole cake.

Orange extract is a fabulous little extra to have in your pantry. It’s a concentrated liquid flavoring extract made from the peel of an orange, usually obtained by cold pressing. It can be used in both sweet and savory dishes, from desserts to marinades and dressings, and a good orange extract will give a burst of orange flavor. It’s optional in this tangerine cake, but if you love citrus flavor it’s a good thing to have around.

Which way is up with this tangerine poppy seed bundt cake?

You have two choices when turning out bundt cakes: you can flip the baked cake out of its pan and have the smooth side facing up, or you can flip it over again and leave the craggy side up. I do it both ways, depending on the cake and the look I’m going for. In this case I want the surface of the cake to capture as much of that zingy orange glaze as possible, so I went with the nooks and crannies up 🙂

The orange glaze that I added on top is simply powdered sugar and freshly squeezed tangerine juice ~ it accentuates the citrus flavor and adds a nice pop of sweetness to every bite.

Useful tips for making tangerine poppy seed cake

Non-stick bundt pans (like milk, mascara, and those jeans from college,) have a life span. Don’t wait for the inevitable to happen, replace yours while you still can. Less detail is often a good thing in a bundt pan when you want it to release cleanly.

Spray or butter and flour your pan, making sure to get in every nook and cranny.

Let the cake cool for 10 minutes out of the oven, then loosen all the edges with a thin offset spatula before turning out.

Be sure to let your cake cool before adding a glaze, or it will soak right into the warm surface of the cake.

Do not slice your cake until just before serving to avoid drying it out.

More citrus cakes

A coffee cake for tangerine lovers!

  • zest of 1 tangerine, peeled with a serrated vegetable peeler (just the orange part, try to avoid the white pith, which is bitter.)
  • unsalted butter, at room temperature
  • orange extract, optional
  • eggs, at room temperature
  • all purpose flour


  • set oven to 350F
  • Spray and flour a bundt pan (or a tube pan with a removable bottom)
  • Heat the poppy seeds and the milk in a saucepan until warmed and set aside.
  • Make the tangerine sugar in a food processor: process the sugar and the zest of one tangerine together until the sugar is fragrant and pale orange. If you don’t have a processor just finely grate the zest and mix with the sugar.
  • Cream the butter with the tangerine sugar and extracts until light and fluffy, scraping down the sides of the bowl as necessary.
  • Beat in the eggs, one at a time, beating well between each addition. Scrape down that bowl!
  • Whisk together the flour and baking powder.
  • Add the dry ingredients to the butter mixture alternately with the poppy seed milk, beginning and ending with the dry. Beat just until blended with each addition, don’t over beat.
  • Blend in the tangerine juice.
  • Turn the batter into your prepared pan and smooth out the surface. Bake for 40-50 minutes or until risen and just turnning golden on top. A toothpick inserted near the center will come out without wet batter on it (moist crumbs are fine.)
  • Let the cake cool in the pan for 10 minutes, then loosen around all the edges and invert onto a cooling rack.
  • To make the glaze, add just enough of the tangerine juice to the sugar to make a fairly thick glaze.
  • When the cake is cool, go to town with the glaze. Garnish with a sprinkle of poppy seeds and tangerine zest.

Unopened packages of poppy seeds usually stay good for up to 2 years, but once they are opened they need to be used within 3 months for optimal freshness (they are high in oil so they can go rancid quickly.) It’s best to store them in an airtight container in a cool, dark place, or you can also freeze poppyseeds in a heavy duty zip lock freezer bag.

baking, bundt cake, cake, citrus, poppy seeds, tangerine, winter

Nutritional information is provided as a courtesy and is an estimate only. This information comes from online calculators.  Although The View from Great Island attempts to provide accurate nutritional information, these figures are only estimates.

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Poppies are as beautiful in the garden as their seeds are when sprinkled on a garden salad. Long regarded as a symbol of fertility, poppy seeds are the small, gray, kidney-shaped seeds from the poppy plant. They provide a mildly nutty flavor and crunch to baked goods as well as salads.

They gained popularity being used in baking, cooking, and medicinal applications. If you want to savor the taste and texture of this edible seed in your dishes, but don’t have any on hand, below we’ll supply you with a list of poppy seed alternatives to continue with your cooking.

What Are Poppy Seeds?

Poppy seeds are seed spices that have been around since antiquity. They were discovered circa 5000 B.C., and originated in the Western Mediterranean region of Europe. This ancient spice’s earliest recorded history dates back to prehistoric lake dwellings in Switzerland.

It is legally cultivated in many parts of the world including India, and most of Europe. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), poppy seeds are the edible oilseeds found in opium poppy plants, Papaver somniferum.

The natural seeds have a faint nutty scent and flavor, with just a hint of spice. There are many different types of poppy seeds. The two popular ones for culinary use are black and white poppy seeds. The blue seed, which almost appears black, is the most common poppy seed used in Western cuisine (in the United States and Europe), but Eastern cuisine like the Middle East and India are more familiar with the white poppy seed.

Poppy seeds are small, yet rich in vitamins and minerals. A tablespoon of poppy seeds contains 1.49 g protein, .88 g dietary fiber, 1.2 g sugar, 1.85 mg sodium, .26 mg Vitamin C, 127.42 g calcium, .14 mg copper, .83 mg iron, 29.13 mg magnesium, 74.71 mg phosphorus, and 61.6 mg potassium. The seeds are also a known demulcent, and are commonly used as a home remedy for constipation.

While it is true that some unwashed or contaminated poppy seeds can contain controlled substances such as opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, and thebaine), washed poppy seeds from reputable sources contain absolutely no opium and are safe for consumption. Poppy seeds used in cooking are processed to have a very low opium alkaloid content, which is why they are legal to use in the kitchen.

If you’re unfamiliar with the connection, opium is a drug derived from the poppy plant; in particular when the poppy pod is cut, the milky white substance containing the opium seeps out from it. Poppy seeds, on the other hand, do not contain the narcotic elements found in opium.

Before being supplied commercially, regulations ensure that poppy seeds used in culinary products are treated to guarantee that they are safe for ingestion. As a normal processing step, poppy seeds undergo a cleaning process that removes debris, including the vast majority of opioid residues. Heat treatment (such as baking) of finished products reduces the levels of opioid residue even further.

Now that the misinformation on poppy seeds has been debunked, these culinary seeds offer themselves as a texture and flavor enhancer to baked goods. They also lend aesthetic appeal to bread and other baked goods. When used in cooking and baking applications, recipes only contain a few grams of washed poppy seeds, so even from that perspective the quantity ingested is quite minimal.

How to Use Poppy Seeds?

Poppy seeds are relatively expensive because they are mostly imported from Europe. They can be sourced in most groceries or online. The seeds are used to make a rich oil or to add flavor and decoration to foods.

A delicious, fatty oil is pressed from poppy seeds. This “oillette” is a suitable substitute for olive oil particularly in salads, cheese-based recipes, and butter sauces that work well on meats, vegetables, and pasta.

Common in Jewish pastries, mohn is made from ground poppy seeds, pulverized into a thick paste. Russian and Ukrainian bakeries also combine the paste with sweetened condensed milk to fill roulades and pirohi (sweet buns). Poppy seeds can be roasted before use to release their oils and bring out their flavor. Simply cook them for 2-3 minutes, or until aromatic, in a dry skillet over medium heat.

Poppy seeds are widely used for culinary and baking purposes. In India, they are used to thicken and give texture to curries and stews. They are frequently mixed into rice and lentil dishes. Because of its highly nutritive nature, it can be baked into muffins, cakes, or pastries in addition to being sprinkled on bagels, buns, or other bread.

They are also used in salad dressings for a crunch of texture, and as a spice in various foods like vegetables, noodles, or pasta dishes. They may also be added to a variety of foods as a garnish. Use them in a salad, as their own pudding, or on top of fruit.

Here are some low histamine recipes to help you add poppy seeds to your cooking:

  • Poppy Seed Dressing
  • Classic Lemon Poppy Seed Cake
  • Gluten-Free Scones
  • Poppy Seed Rolls
  • Carrot Soup topped with Poppy Seeds
  • Warm Chia Seed Pudding

5 Best Poppy Seeds Substitutes

When out of poppy seeds for a recipe, sometimes the best option might be to do without the seeds entirely, since they’re mostly just used as a garnish or topping. If you don’t like poppy seeds or you just don’t want to buy them, but still want a similar taste and texture in your recipe, here are some replacements.

When looking for a substitute for poppy seeds in your dishes, look no further than its fellow seeds. Sesame seeds, hemp seeds, flax seeds, and even harder-to-find nigella seeds offer themselves as excellent alternatives when looking to replace the crunchy texture or mildly nutty taste.

If you’re looking to substitute poppy seed oil, olive oil is the perfect stand-in. Take a look at the list below to peruse our substitution guide.

The best substitute for poppy seeds in baked goods is sesame seeds. While lower in fiber content, sesame seeds offer a desirable amount of nutrition, similar to poppy seeds. Sesame seeds provide an energy boost and are higher in iron, copper, and magnesium with less sugar content compared to poppy seeds.

Sesame seeds have the same mild nutty flavor as poppy seeds, so they work well in just about any recipe. Lightly toasting them will enhance the nutty flavor further.

Aside from flavor, they also have a similar texture. When sprinkled on top of food, brown or black sesame seeds look almost the same as poppy seeds. Black, brown, or white sesame seeds are widely available in any supermarket. Use sesame seeds for poppy seeds in a 1:1 substitution.

Another good alternative is nigella seeds, which you can use in a pinch. Use nigella seeds if poppy seeds are a primary component in the recipe that you are making.

Nigella seeds come from a flowering plant that is actually in the buttercup family. They have a unique flavor that will make them a good poppy seed substitute in savory dishes. Since they resemble poppy seeds, you can also use them to garnish food in their place.

Nigella is most commonly used in Indian cuisine, so if you have this in your cupboard already, give it a try. However, nigella seeds are generally harder to find than poppy seeds. You can substitute them particularly well in naans or flatbread recipes. Use in a 1:1 swap.

nigella seeds on a wooden spoon

Ground Hemp Seeds

Unfortunately, there aren’t that many ingredients that will substitute for both taste and texture of poppy seeds. You are more likely to get one or the other. Hemp seeds offer themselves as a stand-in for the mildly nutty taste of poppy seeds.

To use it as a replacement for poppy seeds, you may need to grind them so that you get a texture that is similar to poppy seeds. They won’t look like poppy seeds, either, but they taste remarkably similar.

Hemp seeds are generally best used in recipes that call for poppy seeds paste or as filling. Use ground hemp seeds as a 1:1 substitute for poppy seed in any recipe.

Another good ingredient to swap for poppy seeds is flax seeds. Flax seeds come from the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum, and are completely plant-based.

Flax seeds don’t look anything like poppy seeds, and can be a bit of a turnoff on the top of bread or muffins. Although they don’t look much like poppy seeds, their texture mimics them quite well. Use flax seeds as a 1:1 substitute for poppy seeds in any recipe, for a lot of crunch.

Olive Oil for Poppy Seed Oil

Poppy seed oil is the oil obtained from a poppy plant. Due to its pleasant nutty taste, as well as various health benefits, the poppy seed oil is widely used in food preparation. Poppy seed oil is used in salad dressings, as a cooking oil, and even as a dessert flavoring.

When looking to substitute poppy seed oil in your recipe, olive oil is suitable. One of the healthiest cooking oils in the world, olive oil is pressed from olives. A Mediterranean delicacy, olive oil also has a prominent olive taste with nutty undertones.

It boasts vitamins and minerals that outweigh those of poppy seeds. Use olive oil in any application where poppy seed oil would be used in a 1:1 ratio.

Learn About California Detox Center’s Addiction Programs

Now you know that poppy seeds can get you high. At Banyan Palm Springs, we are committed to your well-being. Our team of experts is prepared to guide you through the withdrawal process safely. We offer medically monitored detox to help those struggling with opioid addiction and other types of addiction. Banyan’s special programs include a SMART recovery program and intervention services for addiction.

If you or a loved one is struggling, then an opiate detox may be just what you need to begin the journey to long-term recovery. Our experienced medical staff understands the importance of meeting your recovery goals and needs. We want to see you on your way to sobriety.

Please, don’t hesitate to contact a team member at Banyan Treatment Centers Palm Springs by calling 888-280-4763 and ask about our special levels of care to get started today!

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Do Poppy Seeds Contain Opium?

There are narcotics in poppy seeds. However, the amount is meager. The seeds used for everyday gatherings are from a plant, producing opium or psychoactive chemicals. Morphine and codeine are found in the plant, including the poppy seeds. If many seeds are consumed, it’s possible to test positive on a drug test.

According to Dr. Christopher S. Baird, typical poppy-seed food contains only a few grams of poppy seeds and, therefore, only a few micrograms of morphine. A single initial dose of medically-prescribed morphine contains 5,000 and 30,000 micrograms. This means a person who has no tolerance for morphine can eat many poppy seeds without feeling any drug effects.

Is the Callery pear on Oregon’s pest tree list?

Q: I wish to ask about the Pyrus calleryana. Is this on Oregon’s nuisance tree list? I’ve been reading many articles about the ornamental pear tree and how it has taken over empty fields, forests, wetlands and farmlands throughout the United States.

It has become a huge nightmare in some of the Southern and Midwestern states. Officials in South Carolina have added the Callery Pear/Bradford Pear tree to the state plant pest list. Ohio is banning the sale of the tree starting in October 2024. Other states are working on similar legislation.

What is the status of this tree in Oregon? I know that it is currently being planted by developers as a popular street tree in many Oregon communities. In fact, it lines the street of the new housing development into which we moved a year ago. I am hopeful that the state of Oregon will make it illegal to continue planting this tree. – Washington County

A: Callery pear has invasive traits that enable it to spread aggressively. This tree is under observation and may be listed on official invasive species lists in the near future. A review of risks should be undertaken before selecting this tree for planting sites. The various cultivars of this species are more commonly available than the species itself. Callery pear has a weak wood and branch structure and is susceptible to ice storm damage. Here’s some more information. – Chris Rusch, OSU Extension Master Gardener

False lily of the valleyOSU Extension Service

Azalea not blooming well? Try these tips

Q: I have a 20-year-old exbury azalea that rarely puts out more than one to two blooms each season. It is planted in morning shade and filtered afternoon sun and is well mulched. Even using low nitrogen fertilizer and fertilizer for acid-loving plants, as I have been doing for years, will still not make it bloom. The plant appears healthy and is loaded with new spring growth. What else should I be doing to help it bloom? – Polk County

A: There are a number of reasons that an azalea may not bloom well, the most common being weather and untimely pruning.

Check your plant through the season to see if there are any flower buds that form but fail to open. This could be a sign of winter damage, or possibly other environmental stresses related to summer heat and drought. Azalea roots tend to be shallow, so it is important to keep three to four inches of mulch across the root zone (but not directly against the trunk). And while azaleas enjoy a good watering, make sure there is good drainage since they don’t like soggy, compacted soil.

If there are no buds at all, it may be because the plant is getting too much shade. One Extension source indicates that azaleas “like filtered shade and do best with morning sun and afternoon shade. They especially need some protection from our hot July and August afternoons.” Also, be sure to prune soon after the normal bloom time ends. Any later pruning may remove the flower buds for the next season. Fertilize after lightly blooming but continue to limit the nitrogen since it can produce a lot of vegetation at the expense of blooms. – Lynne Marie Sullivan, OSU Extension Master Gardener

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This plant is taking over my garden! What is it?

Q: These are taking over my fern garden! What are they? – Clatsop County

A: That is false lily of the valley (Maianthemum ditatatum). This plant is an Oregon native that spreads via creeping underground roots and can become invasive. False lily of the valley likes moist to wet soil and shade. It is a perennial.

Here is more information. – Linda Holmes, OSU Extension Master Gardener

How can I plant around these roots?OSU Extension Service

How Many Poppy Seeds to Get High?

If you are wondering, “can poppy seeds get you high,” the answer is yes. Typically, drinking poppy seed tea will trigger the drug effects, and a person will experience symptoms. But eating poppy seeds is still dangerous, especially if you need to take a drug test for work or another important matter. Eating a couple of poppy seed-coated bagels or muffins can result in a positive drug test.

According to a study regarding opioid exposure associated with poppy consumption, there were 19 deaths reported to poison control centers in the United States in 2021. Due to the deaths and amount of false-positive drug tests, it’s advised to leave opium use for medical purposes.

After understanding what are poppy seeds used for and the potential risks if ingested, is it worth consuming? Poppy seeds hold micros of codeine and morphine, and technically, if a person desires to roll poppy seeds into joint paper, then the possibility of getting high increases. However, the extract is found to be potent in tea, and a person is more likely to choose drinking poppy seeds rather than smoking since the effects are guaranteed. Smoking poppy seeds is possible but not advised since addiction can occur.

Removing old tree roots can be time consuming

Q: We are clearing an area for a vegetable garden. The entire area is under landscape fabric/weed barrier and several inches of river rock. When we cleared the barrier and rock, we found very large tree roots. We think they belong to a tree that is no longer there. (We are new to the house.)

The closest plants are large yuccas and rhododendron. Can we remove the roots? Can we move the yuccas? The yuccas are approximately 8 feet tall. – Benton County

“Most yuccas can be dug, the injured and diseased roots pruned off, and transplanted immediately or held in shaded, open-air storage for a few days to allow roots to heal. Pruning the tops is not recommended. The transplanted plants can benefit from a shade cloth draped over them. Remove the tarp at the first signs of establishment and growth. Transplants may take years to reestablish in their new locations. Do not apply fertilizer to newly transplanted plants. “

As for the roots, I agree that they seem to be from a tree that was previously removed and not from your existing landscape. Removing those roots may prove to be hard and time consuming. Depending on your soil type, you might consider bringing in garden soil and putting raised beds over the roots. The roots will eventually decompose on their own. You could also use a powered auger to dig holes for vegetable transplants. Master Gardeners throughout the state are holding plant sales where you can get vegetable starts as well as other landscaping plants. You can find a plant sale in your county here. – Deborah Kern, OSU Extension Master Gardener

Azaleas like filtered shade and do best with morning sun and afternoon shade. File photo.

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